Cosmic Background Explorer

Before this happened to a permutation, the universe would be opaque – the free electrons emitted light and would dispel it, just as water droplets scatter the sunlight in the clouds. But when free electrons are completely transformed into atoms, the universe is the hour is clear. The same photon, we can observe now, they glow – this is the relic izluchenie.Nobelevskaya award for NASA NASA conducted two studies of the CMB, making the images of the universe after 400 thousand years after its formation. The first of these studies have been conducted using the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). In 1992, the COBE team announced the discovery of initially cold and hot spots in the cosmic radiation. These points can be attributed to the gravitational field of the early universe. They form a vast sectors of galaxies that stretch hundreds of millions of light years throughout the universe.

In 2006, this work has brought to John Matera and George Smoot – nasovskim scientists from the University of California – Nobel Prize in physics. The next study the CMB was named Wilkinson Microware Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The technical base has expanded significantly in comparison with the COBE team, and WMAP conducted a study of the entire sky, measuring the temperature difference between microwave radiation, which subtly spread throughout the universe. On the map sky hot regions are marked in red, cold – blue. Comparing these observations with theoretical models of the universe, scientists have concluded that the universe – "flat". That is, the geometry of space space corresponds to the Euclidean geometry (parallel lines do not intersect, the ratio of the circumference of the circle and its diameter corresponds to the number Pi, etc.).


This is a true story. 10 series: 'An avalanche in ' / 'n Avalanche' (season 2, series 4) Far away in the mountains of 's two friends went to climbers to conquer a dangerous slope. But there was misery. Thirst for the championship turned into a desperate struggle for life. Battling with the avalanche, they felt the full force of destructive weapons of nature. One of the men had to make a terrible choice. Save myself or stay with a friend and look in the eyes of death.

The story unfolds in for eight days. 11 series: 'Missing at sea' / 'Lost at Sea' (Season 2, Episode 5) Two young men trying to establish complex relationships with their fathers. To this end, they decide to go on a fishing trip to Mexico. But after they flew in the clear sky, a sudden storm has led to what they had to land the plane on the water. Survive in a plane crash – is one thing but to stay alive on the high seas – is quite another.

One of them swam to shore for help, but others remain with their fathers, helping them to survive. The story took place in the Gulf of California in Mexico. 12 series: 'In the crater of a volcano' / 'Crash in a volcano '(Season 2, Episode 6) A film crew from Hollywood by helicopter Flied active volcano. Suddenly, a helicopter engine fails and he drops a stone into the boiling crater of the volcano.

Stanford University

Galyuton, known in his time as a mathematician, journalist, criminologist. However, his assumption that intelligence is dependent on the speed, accuracy and ability perception is false. At the end of the last century French scientist A. Binet also engaged in the measurement of intelligence. Impelled him to this purely practical task: the French minister of education has entrusted him to create a method by which it might be an early aged children to recognize the mentally retarded, to train them in institutions.

Binet and Simon, his assistant gave the study of this problem for 10 years. They chose a different path than Galton, and he was right. Binet and Simon analizirovali tasks that children receive from teachers, also proposed its own, covering a variety of industries related to thinking, which, respectively, the solution was evaluated. In 1905, established the first scale to assess the level of intelligence. Then it was repeatedly altered, in particular, an American scientist L. Terman of Stanford University in California. Stanford-Binet test, along with other uses and now. Binet IQ Test was standardized.

This means that each individual test result is influenced by the average assessment in general. The practice has helped to place the job in such a manner as to their complexity was on the increase and that 50% of the respondents were not could solve more than half of the proposed tasks. After processing the results of the test, each subject took a definite position on the scale of measurement. Consequently, the test did not give an answer, this intellectual person or not, it simply defines his place in the scale of 50 to 150 points.

Southern California

Desire determines the entire course of the pleasures of life, all the joys and sufferings. Unable to achieve the desired – we are upset, but a successful attempt, on the contrary, increases our vitality. The top floor without happiness – a feeling of overwhelming us at the time of the meeting and wish him filling. 'Stop the moment! " – We scream in delight, but no such luck. Each time the same story: Do not you know it, but there is no happiness – evaporated like smoke.

'In our lives, only two tragedies. One – when it is not you get what you want, the other – when you get. The second is worse, this is truly a tragedy. " Author sentiments – Oscar Wilde. And how right he was! We can dream for years about a luxury car, but it is the dream and enjoy begins to dissipate in direct proportion to mileage.

Such is the fate of the desires of each. Truly, a man – a bottomless pit. Richard Easterlin of the University of Southern California says' hedonic cycle ':' We very quickly get used to happiness, and we take it for granted, or compare it with what is other, not with what we had before. " As a result, we are no happier almost never. Pleasures of this world only inflame us, leaving in the end with nothing. Today it is for anybody not a secret. What's the solution? Constantly changing sources of pleasure? Or change ourselves? The Transfiguration of Kabbalists explain that the nature of purposefully lead people to perfection and happiness without end. The secret to happiness laid in the inner transformation: 'Enjoy yourself for the sake of' followed by 'pleasure for the sake of passing. " Do not worry, it's not scholasticism and notation. Itself Nature gives us a great example: look at how the mother enjoys the happiness of their children. Only love enables people to carry all their hopes on the favorite. A short-summary What is happiness? Pleasure that fills our desire. What's the problem? Our desire is impossible to satisfy, at least in the long term. Once it is filled, pleasure disappears. What is the solution? Enjoy filling their own wishes, desires and your neighbor. If we want to fill each other's delight, everyone will feel happy. How does it work? Similarly, as a loving mother or passionate lovers. I want to fill another pleasure, and he's ready to take this pleasure, knowing that by doing so enjoy me. Together we create an infinite set of return-receipt, and happiness no longer slips out of our hands. That is what explains the Kabbalah. It teaches us receive pleasure, to which there is no edge and no center. Thus, happiness is not playing hide and seek with us. It is in plain sight and carefully looking at his watch. Date scheduled. Late simply a disgrace. Source article –

Breeding Chinchillas

South American rodents chinchilla with long bushy tail and a valuable silver-gray fur recently acquired great popularity among animal lovers and farmers. For some exotic animal in the house is mascot and prosperity, for others – the object of fur farming. As domestic animals kept chinchillas have the Incas, and the name of this animal comes from a tribe of Indians chynchyl. Despite the fact that rodents considered very valuable prey, hunting them was regulated, and the fur of chinchillas was built in the royal rank. Chinchilla products could only be members of the nobility. But with the arrival of Spanish conquerors of animals imminent direct threat of extinction: the Europeans liked their amazing beauty of thick fur.

The new direction the fur industry is largely due to his appearance, primarily Californian, MF Chapman, who developed a method of breeding for fur farms. Successful experiments with domesticated animals, allowed to keep chinchillas in nature and to save them from the merciless destruction. After the death of the first shinshilovoda case continued his son, founded in 1942, own farm for breeding. A decade later, shinshillovodstvom occupied most of the developed countries of Europe, Asia and Australia. Today, most large farms are located in Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic. Breeders breeding chinchillas successful conclusion to the new color. The demand for fur is growing every year. Annually for sale in Copenhagen attracts buyers and sellers from 450 countries. Put up at auction thousands of different skins categories, and characteristically, always in an unstable value – in fact, such a product is unique, and like any currency, maneuvering in the price.