Wooden house. Wooden spatial designs. The main types. All engineering designs of wooden houses, wooden are spatial, but many of them to simplify the calculations are divided into separate flat systems, working independently of one another. For example, when calculating the wooden roof trusses, interconnected structure of wooden roof and the special bonds, each farm is considered as self-flat system. In this case, not only ignored the possibility of temporary load redistribution between individual farms, but attendance at each farm building envelope. By properly space systems include engineering design, in which work items are not in the same plane. In the calculation of such systems usually take into account the work load-bearing elements in various planes.
In spatial systems, wooden coating of wooden houses, which include a variety of arches and domes, in many cases, also takes into account the work of decking and purlins, which in the calculation of planar systems treated as auxiliary structures. The combination of protecting and supporting functions tend to vaults and domes with solid flooring workers. Premises, overlain by the spatial timber designs, plans may have a rectangular, square, polygonal or circular shape. The shape of the surface of the spatial system of wooden houses can be divided into cylindrical, folded, conical and spherical. At the intersection of cylindrical surfaces can also be produced and stocked crusades shell. By way of bearing distinguished: shells supported mainly by the longitudinal walls (spacers cylindrical vaults); bezraspornye cylindrical shells and folds, simply supported on the end walls, cross vaults, simply supported at the corners of the building, closed vault, simply supported on the walls and the dome with a bearing predominantly on a contour. On hardness spatial systems are divided into thin-walled and ribbed. Depending on the method of combining the elements and their mutual arrangement distinguish solid and mesh-dimensional structure.
Not all wooden structures, called spatial, fully satisfy the above requirements. There are some design covers, elements of which are not in one plane, but at the same time they are easily subdivided into separate flat systems capable of because of its stiffness to take care of all the external load. Such designs are in the form of spatial, and under the terms of his flat. These include design, three-hinged arches are formed from intersecting in the castle hinge and simply supported on walls or foundations. Depending on the type of plan and arches can be obtained by coating different shape. In these constructions, flooring and runs performed the same role as in coatings for flat joists. By spatial structures, which in the calculation can be separated into conventional flat system (arch) are sets of spacers (mesh and solid).