Cosmic Background Explorer

Before this happened to a permutation, the universe would be opaque – the free electrons emitted light and would dispel it, just as water droplets scatter the sunlight in the clouds. But when free electrons are completely transformed into atoms, the universe is the hour is clear. The same photon, we can observe now, they glow – this is the relic izluchenie.Nobelevskaya award for NASA NASA conducted two studies of the CMB, making the images of the universe after 400 thousand years after its formation. The first of these studies have been conducted using the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). In 1992, the COBE team announced the discovery of initially cold and hot spots in the cosmic radiation. These points can be attributed to the gravitational field of the early universe. They form a vast sectors of galaxies that stretch hundreds of millions of light years throughout the universe.

In 2006, this work has brought to John Matera and George Smoot – nasovskim scientists from the University of California – Nobel Prize in physics. The next study the CMB was named Wilkinson Microware Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The technical base has expanded significantly in comparison with the COBE team, and WMAP conducted a study of the entire sky, measuring the temperature difference between microwave radiation, which subtly spread throughout the universe. On the map sky hot regions are marked in red, cold – blue. Comparing these observations with theoretical models of the universe, scientists have concluded that the universe – "flat". That is, the geometry of space space corresponds to the Euclidean geometry (parallel lines do not intersect, the ratio of the circumference of the circle and its diameter corresponds to the number Pi, etc.).

Stanford University

Galyuton, known in his time as a mathematician, journalist, criminologist. However, his assumption that intelligence is dependent on the speed, accuracy and ability perception is false. At the end of the last century French scientist A. Binet also engaged in the measurement of intelligence. Impelled him to this purely practical task: the French minister of education has entrusted him to create a method by which it might be an early aged children to recognize the mentally retarded, to train them in institutions.

Binet and Simon, his assistant gave the study of this problem for 10 years. They chose a different path than Galton, and he was right. Binet and Simon analizirovali tasks that children receive from teachers, also proposed its own, covering a variety of industries related to thinking, which, respectively, the solution was evaluated. In 1905, established the first scale to assess the level of intelligence. Then it was repeatedly altered, in particular, an American scientist L. Terman of Stanford University in California. Stanford-Binet test, along with other uses and now. Binet IQ Test was standardized.

This means that each individual test result is influenced by the average assessment in general. The practice has helped to place the job in such a manner as to their complexity was on the increase and that 50% of the respondents were not could solve more than half of the proposed tasks. After processing the results of the test, each subject took a definite position on the scale of measurement. Consequently, the test did not give an answer, this intellectual person or not, it simply defines his place in the scale of 50 to 150 points.